Every registered taxable person shall himself assess the taxes payable under this Act and furnish a return for each tax period as specified under section 27.
Explanation.— For the purposes of this section, where goods received in pursuance of an inward supply are returned by the recipient to the supplier within a period of six months from the date of the relevant invoice, the tax payable on such return supply shall be equal to the input tax credit availed of earlier in respect of such inward supply.
(1)Where the taxable person is unable to determine the value of goods and/or services or determine the rate of tax applicable thereto, he may request the proper officer in writing giving reasons for payment of tax on a provisional basis and the proper officer may pass an order allowing payment of tax on provisional basis at such rate or on such value as may be specified by him.
(2)The payment of tax on provisional basis may be allowed, if the taxable person executes a bond in such form as may be prescribed in this behalf, and with such surety or security as the proper officer may deem fit, binding the taxable person for payment of the difference between the amount of tax as may be finally assessed and the amount of tax provisionally assessed.
(3)The proper officer shall, within a period not exceeding six months from the date of the communication of the order issued under sub-section (1), pass the final assessment order after taking into account such information as may be required for finalizing the assessment:
Provided that the period specified in this sub-section may, on sufficient cause being shown and for reasons to be recorded in writing, be extended by the Joint/Additional Commissioner for a further period not exceeding six months and by the Commissioner for such further period as he may deem fit.
(4)The taxable person shall be liable to pay interest on any amount payable to the Central/State Government, consequent to the order for final assessment under sub- section (3), at the rate specified under sub-section (1) of section 36, from the first day after the due date of payment of tax in respect of the said goods and/or services till the date of actual payment, whether such amount is paid before or after the issue of order for final assessment.
(5)Where the taxable person is entitled to a refund consequent to the order for final assessment under sub-section (3), subject to sub-section (6) of section 38, interest shall be paid on such refund as provided in section 39.
Scrutiny of returns
(1) The proper officer may scrutinize the return and related particulars furnished by the taxable person to verify the correctness of the return in such manner as may be prescribed.
(2)The proper officer shall inform the taxable person of the discrepancies noticed, if any, after such scrutiny in such manner as may be prescribed and seek his explanation thereto.
(3)In case the explanation is found acceptable, the taxable person shall be informed accordingly and no further action shall be taken in this regard.
(4)In case no satisfactory explanation is furnished within a period of thirty days of being informed by the proper officer or such further period as may be permitted by him or where the taxable person, after accepting the discrepancies, fails to take the corrective measure within a reasonable period, the proper officer may initiate appropriate action including those under section 49, 50 or section 60, or proceed to determine the tax and other dues under sub-section (6) of section 51 A or under sub- section (6) of section 51 B.
Assessment of non-filers of returns
(1)Where a registered taxable person fails to furnish the return required under section 27 or section 31, even after the service of a notice under section 32, the proper officer may, after allowing a period of fifteen days from the date of service of the notice, proceed to assess the tax liability of the said person to the best of his judgement taking into account all the relevant material which is available or which he has gathered and issue an assessment order within the time limit specified in sub-section (7) of section 51A or sub-section (7) of section 51B, as the case may be.
(2)Where the taxable person furnishes a valid return within thirty days of the service of the assessment order under sub-section (1), the said assessment order shall be deemed to have been withdrawn.
Explanation.— For removal of doubts it is clarified that nothing in this section shall preclude the payment of interest under section 36 or payment of late fee under section 33.
Assessment of unregistered persons
Where a taxable person fails to obtain registration even though liable to do so, the proper officer may proceed to assess the tax liability of such taxable person to the best of his judgement for the relevant tax periods and issue an assessment order within a period of five years from the due date for filing of the annual return for the year to which the tax not paid relates:
Provided that no such assessment order shall be passed without giving a notice to show cause and without giving the person a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
Summary assessment in certain special cases
(1) The proper officer may, on any evidence showing a tax liability of a person coming to his notice, with the previous permission of [Additional/Joint Commissioner], proceed to assess the tax liability of such person to protect the interest of revenue and issue an assessment order, if he has sufficient grounds to believe that any delay in doing so will adversely affect the interest of revenue:
Provided that where the taxable person to whom the liability pertains is not ascertainable and such liability pertains to supply of goods, the person in charge of such goods shall be deemed to be the taxable person liable to be assessed and pay tax and amount due under this section.
(2) On any application made within thirty days from the date of receipt of order passed under sub-section (1) by the taxable person or on his own motion, if the Additional/Joint Commissioner considers that such order is erroneous, he may withdraw such order and follow the procedure laid down in section 51.